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                                                                         Issue: 729   Date: 08/12/2004

Announcing the Publication of
Chinese St. Louis: From Enclave to Cultural Community
《聖路易的華人— 從唐人街到文化社區》
令狐萍博士英文史學專著 天普大學出版社出版

By SCANews staff

The publication of the series of 30 articles on Chinese in St. Louis ( written by Dr. Huping Ling, Professor of History at Truman States University, in The St. Louis Chinese American News (December 28, 2000 to July 19, 2001) has generated a great interest among the Chinese American community and the mainstream society in St. Louis as well as Chinese American communities across the country and the academics on Asian American studies. Many readers have inquired the availability of a book in English on the subject. After over a decade of intensive research and writing, Professor Huping Ling is now happy to present the St. Louis community and readers throughout the country with her book entitled Chinese St. Louis: From Enclave to Cultural Community (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004).

The book includes nine chapters that are divided into two parts - "Hop Alley, A Community for Survival, 1860s-1966" and "Building a Cultural Community, 1960s to 2000s." Part One hails the triumph of ordinary Chinese men and women in the city despite hardship and adversity. Part Two defines the nature and scope of the model of cultural community through chronological and thematic treatment, and pinpoint the significance and applicability of the model to other Chinese American settlements in the country.

In 1857, Alla Lee, a twenty-four-year-old native of Ningbo, China, seeking a better life, came to St. Louis, where he opened a small shop on North Tenth Street selling tea and coffee. As the first and probably the only Chinese there for a while, Alla Lee mingled mostly with immigrants from Northern Ireland and married an Irish woman. A decade later, Alla Lee was joined by several hundred of his countrymen from San Francisco and New York who were seeking jobs in mines and factories in and around St. Louis. Most of these Chinese workers lived in boarding houses located near a small street called Hop Alley. In time, Chinese hand laundries, merchandise stores, herb shops, restaurants, and clan association headquarters sprang up in and around that street. In St. Louis Hop Alley became synonymous with Chinatown.

Local records indicate that Chinese businesses, especially hand laundries, drew a wide clientele and thus the businesses run by Chinese immigrants contributed disproportionally to the city's economy. According to Dr. Ling's research, Chinese provided 60 percent of the laundry services for the city during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries although Chinese comprised less than 0.1 percent of the total population. While the city's residents readily patronized these businesses, they did not welcome the Chinese themselves, regarding them as "peculiar" creatures. Hop Alley was seen as an exotic place where criminal activity such as opium manufacturing, smuggling, and smoking, tong fighting and murder existed. Despite frequent police raids and bias among other residents, Hop Alley survived with remarkable resilience and energy until 1966 when urban renewal bulldozers leveled the area to make a parking lot for Busch Stadium.

While the old Chinese settlement around Hop Alley was disappearing, a new suburban Chinese American community had been quietly, yet rapidly, emerging since the 1960s. In the next few decades, the ethnographic distribution changed considerably with more Chinese residing in St. Louis County, which constitutes the suburban municipalities in the south and west areas outside of St. Louis City. The U. S. Censuses indicate that the number of suburban Chinese Americans increased from 106 (30% of the total Chinese in St. Louis area) in 1960 to 461 (80% of the total) in 1970, 1,894 (78% of the total) in 1980, and 3873 (83% of the total) in 1990. Since 1990, the Chinese population in the Greater St. Louis area has increased rapidly - to 9,120 according to the U.S. census of 2000. Various unofficial estimates, however, show the figure to be between 15,000 and 20,000, with an overwhelming majority scattered in suburban communities and constituting one percent of the total suburban population of St. Louis metropolitan area.

Professor Ling's cultural community model has been warmly received by the academic community. Dr. Ronald H. Bayor, editor of The Journal of American Ethnic History, praises that "Huping Ling provides a well-documented account of the development of a cultural community among Chinese Americans in St.Louis. The book offers an insightful history of the relatively unstudied Midwestern urban Chinese and provides a model for understanding other Chinese as well as non-Asian American communities." Dr. Roger Daniels, Charles Phelps Taft Emeritus Professor of History at University of Cincinnati and a prominent pioneer scholar of Asian American studies, comments that "Huping Ling's study of Chinese St. Louis is a breakthrough volume, the first full-scale study of the ethnic group in a Midwestern American city. Only by examining the evolution of such smaller communities can the full scope of the Chinese diaspora in America be understood." Dr. Franklin Ng, president of the Association of Asian American Studies, notes that "Chinese St. Louisans provides a much-needed addition to the published literature about Chinese Americans. It skillfully places the Chinese in St. Louis in the context of urban history and the Chinese American historiography. Ling's presentation of the cultural community' is important as it will help to further thinking about Chinese communities that are not in the form of traditional Chinatowns. It is a wonderful study, rich with insight and sophistication."

Professor Ling's book has placed the St. Louis Chinese community on the national political map, helped to promote the visibility and influence of Asian Americans in the mainstream society, and contributed to the transformation of Asian American studies from a coast-centered field to a more inclusive and broader one. The publication of Professor Ling's book is a remarkable event in the St. Louis Chinese community and signifies the maturity and empowerment of the community.

Interested readers can contact Temple University Press, c/o Chicago Distribution Center, 11030 S. Langley Ave., Chicago, IL 60628; Call toll-free 1-800-621-2736 or fax 1-800-621-8476; (paper $22.95 ISBN 1-59213-039-9; shipping: $4.5 for first book, $1.00 each additional) or contact Dr. Ling.

Dr. Huping Ling is professor of history at Truman State University teaching Asian American history and East Asian history. Her research focuses on Asian American studies and she has published extensively in the field. She is also a receipt of numerous awards and honors such as the Ford Foundation Book Award, American Fellow of AAUW, and was nominated as the educator of the year at Truman States University from 1995-97. She is the past board director and the Midwest/Mountain/Canada representative of the Association for Asian American Studies. Currently she is writing a book on Asian American women.

Contact info:
Huping Ling, Ph.D.
Professor of History
Division of Social Science
Truman State University
Kirksville, MO 63501
Tel: 660-785-4654
Fax: 660-785-4337


令狐萍教授寫作的《聖路易的華人》中文長篇歷史紀實文學在《聖路易時報》(2000年12 月28 日至2001年7 月19 日)連載以來﹐引起聖路易華人社區與主流社會及美國亞裔學術界和其他華人社區的極大關注與興趣。許多讀者﹐特別是主流社會人士與美生華裔紛紛向《時報》與作者查詢是否有關於聖路易華人的英文專著。現在﹐讀者與美亞研究學術界期待以久的集令狐萍教授十數年研究成果的英文史學專著終于由美國Temple大學出版社(Temple University Press)于2004年10月出版。

《聖路易的華人— 從唐人街到文化社區》宏概華人在聖路易一世紀半的艱辛奮鬥史。全書分兩大部分。第一部分記載聖路易唐人街的興起、興盛、凋零直至煙飛灰滅﹐突出聖路易早期華人對主流社會的貢獻。第二部分敘述自二十世紀六十年代以來聖路易華人文化社區的形成與發展及其重大意義。

一八五七年﹐寧波籍華人阿拉李 (Alla Lee)定居聖路易﹐成為史載的聖路易第一
華人。阿拉李在愛爾蘭移民居住區經營小本茶葉、咖啡生意﹐並與愛爾蘭青年女子薩拉•格蘭姆相愛結婚。十二年後﹐數批華人相繼從舊金山與紐約輾轉至聖路易。 至十九世紀末﹐約三百多華人聚居聖路易市區南面的哈普巷 (Hop Alley)一帶的寄宿房﹐形成俗稱“哈普巷”的聖路易唐人街。唐人街生意百行﹐但最主要的行業則為洗衣業、雜貨業、與餐館業。華人行業不僅為排斥于主流社會勞工市場之外的華人提供就業機會﹐更為美國內戰後聖路易城市經濟的發展助一臂之力。根據令狐萍教授的研究﹐ 僅佔聖路易人口千分之一的華人﹐竟滿足該市百分之六十的漿洗需求。

為了保護華人利益﹐聖路易的華人成立安良工商會﹐俗稱“安良堂”。安良堂實行互助互利﹐幫助新移民排難解憂﹐並設立公堂﹐評斷是非﹐處理華人內部糾紛。安良堂因此成為聖路易唐人街的自治性的非官方政府。《聖路易的華人— 從唐人街到文化社區》為第一部翔實記述分析安良堂歷史與影響的專著。六十年代﹐聖路易市政府推行“市區重建運動”﹐改造市中心的衰敗區。唐人街故而塵飛灰滅﹐安良堂總部被迫搬遷﹐聖路易唐人街從此消失。此後﹐聖路易華人多次企圖再建唐人街﹐並先後在 Delmar 街與Olive 大道形成一定規模的華人商業中心。但是﹐聖路易再未出現大規模的集中的華人商業中心與華人聚居地合一的唐人街。

二十世紀六十年代以來﹐特別是八十年代之後﹐新型的華人社區在聖路易西郡各市區迅速興起發展。不同于以往的Hop Alley﹐新型的華人社區沒有華人商業與住宅合一的專門地理區域﹐而是以中文學校、華語教會、以及華人社區組織為核心的一種特殊的社區。令狐萍教授在分析、比較、研究北美歷史中各種類型的華人社區之後﹐將聖路易的華人社區定義為“文化社區”(Cultural Community)﹐並從理論上為文化社區的結構與特性定義。不同于當代美國東西海岸許多地區以商業利益而形成的新型郊區唐人街﹐聖路易華人的文化社區是由于中華文化凝聚力而產生的社區﹔華人聚集一堂﹐不是為了(或者不僅是為了)經商貿易﹐ 而是(或者更多是)為了弘揚中華文化。同時﹐不同于傳統的唐人街或新型的郊區唐人街﹐聖路易華人的文化社區沒有明確的地理界限﹔聖路易的華人多數就業于主流社會的公司、機關、與學校﹐定居于白人為主的郊區中產階級住宅區﹐而在業余時間、週末、或文化活動中﹐聚集形成華人的文化社區。

令狐萍教授首創的美國少數族裔“文化社區”的模式﹐成為全面確切解釋新型華裔社區與其他少數族裔社區 的新理論﹐在美國種族研究學術界引起極大反響。美國權威種族研究學術雜誌《美國種族歷史研究》主編 Ronald H. Bayor 博士讚揚道﹐“令狐萍教授的文化社區模式不僅助益于我們理解其他華人社區﹐也有助于我們理解非亞裔社區。”美國亞裔研究的創始人與權威Roger Daniels博士稱 《聖路易的華人— 從唐人街到文化社區》為“一部突破性的學術專著﹐是第一部全面記述美國中西部城市少數族裔的史著。”美國亞裔研究學會主席Franklin Ng博士評論道﹐“《聖路易的華人》的文化社區模式是對學術研究的重要貢獻﹐它將幫助我們思考理解華人社區 並不局限于傳統的唐人街理念。作者技巧地將聖路易華人社區置于美國城市歷史與華裔史學史的宏觀背景中﹐ 使該書富有見解﹐老練深奧。”

《聖路易的華人— 從唐人街到文化社區》一書將聖路易華人社區載入史冊﹐扭轉美國亞裔研究中東西海岸與夏威夷佔主導的傳統局面﹐ 弘揚美國中西部亞裔社區 對美國社會的貢獻﹐有助于提昇擴大美國中西部華裔與其他少數族裔在主流社會中的政治影響。令狐萍教授對于聖路易華人社區的貢獻廣為社區人士稱道。

更使聖路易華人社區感到親切與認同的﹐是作者從親身採訪研究的近百名社區人士中﹐精練概括記述社區各界代表性人物。他們之中(以在書中出現次序為序)﹐有哈普巷的老居民李玉柳女士 (Lillie Lee Hong)、林瑞俊先生(Tak Jung)、梁奕祥先生(James Leong)、林社禧先生(Lum Hey)、梁美珍女士(Annie Leong)、Richard Ho 先生、薛春桐(Hong Sit)博士、高社欽(Don Ko)先生與夫人等; 有早期科技醫學學術界人士陶光業博士、Andrew 陸醫師﹐袁錫康醫師、沈曾永醫師、吳仙標博士、吳嘉偉博士、吳訥孫博士、彭滋成博士、彭大強博士等﹔有社區領袖李仲覺先生、尹士珍女士、葉陽初先生、雷戊白女士、羅大楨博士、沈辛六博士、黃卓寅先生、何偉麒先生、戴慶齡博士、梁莉莉女士等﹔有近期科技學術法學醫學界人士孫斌女士、劉景月博士、蔡海岩博士、裘小龍博士、梁志海律師、高桐律師、姜新生醫師等﹔有華人創業者鄺義文先生、趙黃素珍女士、趙汝鈞先生、高華藹先生、劉人豪先生、隋元盛先生與夫人、章沛先生、路君平先生、李尊興 先生、魯麗華女士、蔡國雄先生、謝秀雲女士等﹔有報界人士岳方濟先生、吳毓真女士、黃江文女士等。此外﹐華人各業與華人社區四十多個包括中文學校、華人教會、華人社區組織在內的單位與團體都在書中記述報導。

《聖路易的華人— 從唐人街到文化社區》平裝本 $22﹒95﹐加首本運費$4﹒50﹐第二本以後運費$1。ISBN 1-59213-039-9。有意訂購者請聯係 Temple University Press, c/o Chicago Distribution Center, 11030 S. Langley Ave., Chicago, IL
60628; call toll-free 1-800-621-2736 or fax 1-800-621-8476 或與令狐萍教授

令狐萍博士現任美國杜魯門州立大學歷史系教授﹐教授東亞史與亞裔美國史。她多年從事美國亞裔史的研究寫作﹐出版學術專著 《美國華裔婦女生存奮鬥史》(Surviving on the Gold Mountain: A History of Chinese American Women ) (紐約州立大學出版社﹐1998)﹐《金山謠–美國華裔婦女史》(中國社會科學出版社﹐1999年﹐ 該書獲美國福特基金出版獎)﹐《萍飄美國–新移民實錄》(山西北岳文藝出版社﹐2003)﹐《聖路易的華人》(Chinese St. Louis﹕ From Enclave to Cultural Community﹐Temple University Press, 2004), 《亞裔美國歷史文化百科全書》(Asian American History and Culture: An Encyclopedia, M.E. Sharpe, 2005) 等。 參與《中國古代史》《台灣的現代化和文化認同》《二十世紀的重大事件》、《海外華人與 中國的新研究》、《華人的文化適應和文化改造》、《世紀之交的海外華人》、《亞裔美國百科全書》、《起源與歸宿》等著作的寫作。發表百余篇史學專論﹐散見于《美國種族歷史研究》、《美國研究》、《美國城市研究》、《歷史教師》、《密蘇里史學研究》、《近代中國婦女史研究》等中、美主要學術期刊。曾受聘《聖路易時報》任專欄作家﹐撰寫《聖路易的華人》歷史專欄。獲多項著名國際國內學術獎﹐包括中華美國學會美國福特基金會美國學著作出版基金﹐美國大學婦女教育基金會美國學者獎金、杰普森教學獎金等。從1995年至1998年曾獲杜魯門州立大學優秀教師提名。


Huping Ling, Ph. D., Professor of History, Division of Social Science, 
Truman States University, Kirksville, MO 63501, USA.
Tel: (660) 785-4654(0); Fax: (660) 785-4337(0); Email:

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